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The BS EN 12600 safety glass standard defines a testing method for glass used in buildings. The standard concerned with safety rather than unbreakability.
BS EN 12600 testing is carried out on glass in its intended mounting position (vertical) using a cushioned weight (the impactor) swung against the glass.
The impactor weighs 50kg and so the effect is similar to a person hitting the glass shoulder first.
Class 3, 190mm drop height, is equivalent to an adult pushing hard against the glass or a child running into it.
Class 2, 450mm drop height, is equivalent to rather more than an adult walking into a glass door, but less than a determined attempt to force a way through by running at it.
Class 1, 1200mm drop height, is for testing glass for critical applications.
Clause 4a considers that the breakage is safe if there is no hole large enough to push your fist through and only a limited amount of glass fragments come loose.
Clause 4b considers that the breakage is safe if the glass shatters leaving no large dangerous fragments.
Type A breakage is characterised by large sharp edged fragments.
Type B breakage is characterised by the fragments being held together.
This is the typical breakage mode for mirrors with a safety film backing.
Type C breakage is characterised by the disintegration of the glass into small, relatively harmless particles